Engineering, Technology and the Application of Science (ETS)

Listed below are the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) for Engineering, Technology and the Application of Science and bullet points for their specific grade band progression.

ETS1: Engineering Design

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Primary School (K-2)

  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Elementary School (3-5)

  • Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.
  • At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs.
  • Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved.
  • Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.

Middle School (6-8)

  • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
  • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it.
  • There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.
  • Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors.
  • Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions.

High School (9-12)

  • When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural and environmental impacts.
  • Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs.

This is a table of the Disciplinary Core Ideas of Engineering, Technology and the Application of Science. If coming from a Standard the specific bullet point used is highlighted and additional performance Expectations that make use of the Disciplinary Core Idea can be found below the table. To see all Disciplinary Core Ideas, click on the title "Disciplinary Core Ideas."

Other Standards That Use This Disciplinary Core Idea: