# Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

#### Performance Expectations

1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
2. Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
3. Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
4. Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

A Peformance Expectation (PE) is what a student should be able to do to show mastery of a concept. Some PEs include a Clarification Statement and/or an Assessment Boundary. These can be found by clicking the PE for "More Info." By hovering over a PE, its corresponding pieces from the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts will be highlighted.

### Science and Engineering Practices

#### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds from grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

#### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

### Crosscutting Concepts

By clicking on a specific Science and Engineering Practice, Disciplinary Core Idea, or Crosscutting Concept, you can find out more information on it. By hovering over one you can find its corresponding elements in the PEs.

## Planning Curriculum

### Common Core State Standards Connections

#### ELA/Literacy

• RI.3.1 - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3-PS2-1), (3-PS2-3)
• RI.3.3 - Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-PS2-3)
• RI.3.8 - Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (3-PS2-3)
• SL.3.3 - Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (3-PS2-3)
• W.3.7 - Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (3-PS2-1), (3-PS2-2)
• W.3.8 - Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3-PS2-1), (3-PS2-2)

#### Mathematics

• 3.MD.A.2 - Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (3-PS2-1)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-PS2-1)
• MP.5 - Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-PS2-1)

## Resources & Lesson Plans

• More resources added each week!
A team of teacher curators is working to find, review, and vet online resources that support the standards. Check back often, as NSTA continues to add more targeted resources.
• In this lesson, which is an associated activity to the curated resource The Science of Swinging, students further investigate the variables that affect a pendulum’s motion by riding a playground swing. Students then extend their knowledge ...

• Using a worksheet attached to this lesson, students will investigate how the length of a pendulum string affects its motion. The related curated resource, Swinging in Style, provides opportunitites for further investigations.

• Students will be investigating the effect that balanced and unbalanced forces have on straw rockets as they design their own rocket to see how far it can travel. Students will be testing and evaluating variables, as well as collecting and analyzing f ...

• This video showcases nine static electricity phenomena that can be investigated in the classroom.  The teacher could have students view any three of them to generate and investigate questions about electrical interactions between two object ...

• Students observe and measure a tumblewing glider's motion, conducting a series of investigations to test the effect of changes to the glider's structural features on the flight path and duration of their gliders.  The data coll ...

• This 5E instructional sequence explores electrostatic interactions through student-driven investigations using latex-free supplies. Students observe and later explain how rubbing certain objects with a piece of wool  creates an electrostatic for ...

• In this "Everyday Science Mystery" students are asked to investigate why Jimmy was able to go down a new slide very quickly while dressed in jeans, but struggled down the slide when wearing shorts the next day. This resource is presented as ...

• Students conduct an investigation through measurement and data analysis of origami frog jumping to predict future motion. The effects of balanced and unbalanced forces are explicitly discussed. This lesson is from “Activitie ...

• This resource exemplifies the relationship between science and engineering while demonstrating how a formative assessment probe can be used to assess students' understanding. Students are asked to explain their thinking of how they might cha ...

• “How Can You Go Faster Down a Slide?  is one of four mysteries that comprise a "Mystery Science" unit on forces and their interactions.  Students are posed the driving question: How can you go fastest down a slide? &nbs ...

• Using an Engineering Is Elementary (EIE) unit on aeropsace engineering as an example, the authors give the reader an opportunity to see how science and engineering practices can be integrated into elementary classro ...

• This paper rocket activity is part of the NASA Rocket Educator Guide (https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Rockets.html) that emphasizes hands-on science, prediction, data collection and interpretation ...

• Students make predictions, then investigate what will happen when balls of various sizes, weights, and material compositions collide with one another.  Trials provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the mot ...

• In this activity, students use the SCAMPER brainstorming tool to design a car that can overcome air resistance. The SCAMPER strategy encourages students through a series of questions, to brainstorm things they could change or modify to make a di ...

• Mystery Forces is a non-fiction selection from Amplify Learning’s Seeds of Science, Roots of Reading.  The story presents a series of mysterious events, and asks students to be a “force detective” to determine which f ...

• In this lesson, students will collaboratively conduct an investigation to test how the strength of a force and the mass of an object affects motion.  The data produced will serve as the basis for explanation of this phenomena. Tips are provided ...

• Students are introduced to the trial, error, and redesign of the engineering process in the book  Captain Arsenio: Adventures and (Mis) adventures in Flight by Pablo Bernasconi. In a follow up activity, students consider ...

• This activity is one in a series of Mission: Solar System design challenges developed by PBS’s Design Squad, NASA and the National Science Foundation.  Students design, build, and improve a model that mimics gravity-assisted spac ...

• This article describes a series of easy to implement activities that develop the student’s ability to explain what force is, how forces can change the motion of an object, and identify forces acting on an object at rest.  It will also enab ...

• Through experimentation and active investigation of motion and forces, students are challenged to design, build, and test a simple gravity-powered car that is at least 8 cm wide and less than 30 cm long.  The completed Gravity Rac ...

• To Get to the Other Side: Designing Bridges is an engineering unit from EIE and The Museum of Science in Boston geared towards Grades 1-5.  Students will be building upon their knowledge of pushes and pulls as they explore how for ...

• This article from Science and Children demonstrates how a series of classroom investigation can align well to the dimensions of the Next Generation Science Standards despite the fact that the investigations predated the release of the Framework for K ...

• In this lesson, students will be given a set of everyday objects and asked to make predictions on how far each object will move when they blow on it. They will then measure the distances the objects moved and record their data and observations in the ...

• This fun activity is one of five in a series of space based engineering challenges developed by NASA and Design Squad where students are engaged in implementing the Engineering Design process to build a robotic arm that can lift a cup off a table usi ...

• In this lesson, students will learn how static electricity is created and experience the effects of electrostatic force through engagement in a structured inquiry investigation. Static electricity is defined simply here as the build up of electrical ...

• In this lesson, students will perform a series of experiments to further their understanding of static electricity and specifically, the cause and effect relationships of electrostatic interactions between objects not in contact with each other. &nbs ...

• In this lesson, students will engage in two hands-on investigations to observe the phenomena that occurs when an electrically charged comb interacts cereal and styrofoam pellets. Through these observations, students will begin to establish the cause ...

• Students will investigate the magnetic pull of a bar magnet at varying distances with the use of paper clips. Students will hypothesize, conduct the experiment, collect the data, and draw conclusions. As a class, students will then compare each team’ ...

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• Rockets need a lot of thrust to get into space. Students learn how rocket thrust is generated with propellant. The two types of propellants are discussed—liquid and solid—and their relation to their use on rockets is investigated. Students learn why ...

• One exciting challenge for engineers is the idea of exploration. Through the continuing storyline of the Rockets unit, this lesson looks more closely at Spaceman Rohan, Spacewoman Tess, their daughter Maya, and their challenges with getting to space,...

Planning Curriculum gives connections to other areas of study for easier curriculum creation.