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    Matter and Its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Performance Expectations

  1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. HS-PS1-1

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. HS-PS1-2

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. HS-PS1-3

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. HS-PS1-4

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. HS-PS1-5

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium. HS-PS1-6

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. HS-PS1-7

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. HS-PS1-8

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

A Peformance Expectation (PE) is what a student should be able to do to show mastery of a concept. Some PEs include a Clarification Statement and/or an Assessment Boundary. These can be found by clicking the PE for "More Info." By hovering over a PE, its corresponding pieces from the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts will be highlighted.

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

By clicking on a specific Science and Engineering Practice, Disciplinary Core Idea, or Crosscutting Concept, you can find out more information on it. By hovering over one you can find its corresponding elements in the PEs.

Planning Curriculum

Common Core State Standards Connections


  • RST.11-12.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-5)
  • RST.9-10.7 - Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1)
  • SL.11-12.5 - Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
  • WHST.11-12.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-6)
  • WHST.11-12.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
  • WHST.11-12.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
  • WHST.9-12.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-5)
  • WHST.9-12.5 - Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)


  • HSN-Q.A.1 - Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
  • HSN-Q.A.2 - Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
  • HSN-Q.A.3 - Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-3), (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-6), (HS-PS1-7), (HS-PS1-8)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5), (HS-PS1-7)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-8)

Model Course Mapping

First Time Visitors

Resources & Lesson Plans

  • More resources added each week!
    A team of teacher curators is working to find, review, and vet online resources that support the standards. Check back often, as NSTA continues to add more targeted resources.
  • The demonstration described in this resource involves a simple reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.  The reaction is performed in flasks with balloons attached to capture the hydrogen gas that is produced by the reaction. Four se…

  • This lesson focuses on having students examine the effect of different factors on the rate of a chemical reaction, including: temperature, concentration of particles, surface area of reactants, and the presence of catalysts. Activities organized a…

  • The demonstration featured in this blog and video presents a puzzle for students to explain observations of the difference in behavior of four balloons - three filled with helium and the final one with air - when cooled in liquid nitrogen. Students…

  • This resource is a teacher guide to a lab where students investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of a reaction between red food dye and bleach. Using a spectrophotometer, students use absorbance to measure the rate of th…

  • In this lab activity, students use a digital temperature probe to compare the temperature changes when four different alcohols evaporate. The analysis questions provided guide students to connecting the energy changes associated with the change of …

  • Part 1 of the X-ray Spectroscopy Unit from NASA’s Imagine the Universe! lesson plans includes a series of three lessons on the formation of elements in stars. During this three lesson series, students learn about the life cycle of stars and model th…

  • This series of interactive simulations provide students with the ability to experiment with reaction concentration and temperature to observe the effects on a chemical reaction. This simulation is coupled with questions that lead students to develop …

  • This set of a teacher and student guides provides instruction on a 2-3 day series of activities about Le Chatelier’s principle, which shows the effect of changes to conditions in an equilibrium reaction. Students work in pairs or groups to develop th…

  • This lesson plan (pages 14-15 of the Water Basic Lesson Plan) provides teacher guidelines for using 3-D water and ethanol molecule models to explain water’s surface tension property that results from the polar nature of the molecules by comparison wi…

  • This activity provides students the opportunity to explore patterns in the periodic table. Students have options to display graphs of elements according to their atomic numbers and properties including: molar mass, atomic radius, ionic radius, melti…

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Planning Curriculum gives connections to other areas of study for easier curriculum creation.