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  • Middle School

    Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Performance Expectations

  1. Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. MS-PS4-1

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. MS-PS4-2

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  3. Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. MS-PS4-3

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

A Peformance Expectation (PE) is what a student should be able to do to show mastery of a concept. Some PEs include a Clarification Statement and/or an Assessment Boundary. These can be found by clicking the PE for "More Info." By hovering over a PE, its corresponding pieces from the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts will be highlighted.

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

By clicking on a specific Science and Engineering Practice, Disciplinary Core Idea, or Crosscutting Concept, you can find out more information on it. By hovering over one you can find its corresponding elements in the PEs.

Planning Curriculum

Common Core State Standards Connections


  • RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
  • RST.6-8.2 - Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
  • RST.6-8.9 - Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
  • SL.8.5 - Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1), (MS-PS4-2)
  • WHST.6-8.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)


  • 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
  • 6.RP.A.3 - Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. (MS-PS4-1)
  • 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
  • 8.F.A.3 - Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)

Model Course Mapping

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Resources & Lesson Plans

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Planning Curriculum gives connections to other areas of study for easier curriculum creation.