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  • Middle School

    Space Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

Performance Expectations

  1. Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. MS-ESS1-1

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  2. Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system. MS-ESS1-2

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
  3. Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. MS-ESS1-3

    Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

A Peformance Expectation (PE) is what a student should be able to do to show mastery of a concept. Some PEs include a Clarification Statement and/or an Assessment Boundary. These can be found by clicking the PE for "More Info." By hovering over a PE, its corresponding pieces from the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts will be highlighted.

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

By clicking on a specific Science and Engineering Practice, Disciplinary Core Idea, or Crosscutting Concept, you can find out more information on it. By hovering over one you can find its corresponding elements in the PEs.

Planning Curriculum

Common Core State Standards Connections


  • RST.6-8.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-ESS1-3)
  • RST.6-8.7 - Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-ESS1-3)
  • SL.8.5 - Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-ESS1-1)


  • 6.EE.B.6 - Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. (MS-ESS1-2)
  • 6.RP.A.1 - Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-ESS1-1), (MS-ESS1-2), (MS-ESS1-3)
  • 7.EE.B.4 - Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. (MS-ESS1-2)
  • 7.RP.A.2 - Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-ESS1-1), (MS-ESS1-2), (MS-ESS1-3)
  • MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-ESS1-3)
  • MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (MS-ESS1-1), (MS-ESS1-2)

Model Course Mapping

First Time Visitors

Resources & Lesson Plans

  • More resources added each week!
    A team of teacher curators is working to find, review, and vet online resources that support the standards. Check back often, as NSTA continues to add more targeted resources.
  • My Solar System is an orbital simulator which students use to investigate how mass, position and velocity affect gravitational forces.  Students can either select from ten preset scenarios, ranging from s…

  • Exploring Lunar and Solar Eclipses via a 3-D Modeling Design Task is a detailed lesson plan published in the October 2016 issue of NSTA’s Science Scope journal.  …

  • Including Students presents a single, kinesthetic model that can be used to explain such varied concepts as rotation, revolution, phases of the Moon and seasons. The outlined activities are meant to be used th…

  • The NASA Eclipse Web Site contains multiple pages of data which students can explore, analyze and use to explain phenomena.  The site contains data on solar and lunar eclipses and on the transits of Venus and Mars…

  • Toilet Paper Solar System is a high-interest, kinesthetic group activity in which students create a scalar model of distances in the solar system using a single roll of toilet paper.  This activity can be…

  • Seasons Interactive provides students an opportunity to investigate the existence of seasons.  In this simulation, users cause the Earth to revolve around the Sun by toggling through a calendar year. Users can compare daylight durati…

  • Gravity and Orbits is an interactive simulation that investigates the effect of gravity on orbital paths. Users are given the option of investigating four scenarios: 1. star and planet, 2. star, planet and moon, 3. planet and moon, and, f…

  • The Pull of the Planets is part of a thematic series of lessons highlighting the Juno mission to Jupiter. It is a traditional hands on activity that models how gravitational forces can keep planets and asteroids in orbit within the Solar System. Usi…

  • Lunar Phases is an interactive simulation consisting of three scaffolding activities. In Activity One, students are tasked with determining which half of the Earth and Moon is lit as the Moon revolves around the Earth. The directions state that use…

  • In Eclipse Interactive, students investigate both lunar and solar eclipses by manipulating up to three independent variables: Moon's tilt from orbit, Earth-Moon distance and size of the Moon. By viewing the effects of changes to these variables, stud…

  • Solar System Scale and Size is a two-part activity that explores relative distances and sizes of objects in our Solar System using the 5E Instructional Model. In Activity 1, students are tasked with calculating relative distances to the S…

  • Seasons Interactive provides students with the opportunity to investigate how Earth's angle of inclination affects three factors: the angle of incoming sunlight, average daily temperatures and the Sun’s ecliptic path. Three preset values…

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  • This simulation from the University of Nevada-Lincoln shows the geometry of the earth and sun over the course of a year, demonstrating how seasons occur. This simulator allows both orbital and celestial sphere representations of the seasonal motions.

  • This is a set of multiple choice items developed by AAAS Project 2061 focused on the topic of the seasons. The items are different from many multiple choice science test items in that they assess students’ conceptual understanding (not just facts ...

  • The activity is similar to the traditional activity where there is a bright light source in the classroom and students place a Styrofoam ball on a pencil. However, rather than having the teacher explain the model, students are instead asked to use a ...

  • This simulation by the University of Nebraska at Lincoln demonstrates the correspondence between the moon's position in its orbit, its phase, and its position in an observer's sky at different times of day.

  • This vocabulary matching engagement includes terms for tides and lunar phases and can be used as a formative assessment with middle school students.

  • This activity description provides a kinesthetic model of tides: high and low, as well as spring and neap.

  • This activity is designed to show students the relationship between ocean tides and the lunar movements by creating and examining graphs of the tides over months and comparing the lunar phases to the pattern.

Planning Curriculum gives connections to other areas of study for easier curriculum creation.