Science Is a Way of Knowing

Primary School (K-2)

  • Science knowledge helps us know about the world.

Elementary School (3-5)

  • Science is both a body of knowledge and processes that add new knowledge.
  • Science is a way of knowing that is used by many people.

Middle School (6-8)

  • Science is both a body of knowledge and the processes and practices used to add to that body of knowledge.
  • Science knowledge is cumulative and many people, from many generations and nations, have contributed to science knowledge.
  • Science is a way of knowing used by many people, not just scientists.

High School (9-12)

  • Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the processes used to refine, elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge.
  • Science is a unique way of knowing and there are other ways of knowing.
  • Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing through use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skeptical review.
  • Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to, theories, ideas, and beliefs over time.

These understandings about the nature of science are found in the crosscutting concepts section of the foundation box on a standards page.

Other Standards That Use This Connection to the Nature of Science: