# Forces and Motion

Contributor
Sarah Borenstein
Type Category
Instructional Materials
Types
Student Guide , Lesson/Lesson Plan
Note
This resource, vetted by NSTA curators, is provided to teachers along with suggested modifications to make it more in line with the vision of the NGSS. While not considered to be “fully aligned,” the resources and expert recommendations provide teachers with concrete examples and expert guidance using the EQuIP rubric to adapted existing resources. Read more here.

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## Description

A teacher-submitted, NGSS-mindful lesson plan for using the PhET model "Forces and Motion - Basics". The model uses a tug-of-war with participants of different sizes and strengths, placed different distances from the center, in order to show how forces can combine in different ways to affect the motion of an object. The lesson itself includes a framing question, several investigations, and a request to back up a claim with evidence. NOTE: the web page given above is not itself the resource. The web page provides a link to a downloadable Microsoft Word document of the lesson plan, which is the resource.

Intended Audience

Educator and learner
Educational Level
• Middle School
Language
English
Access Restrictions

Free access - The right to view and/or download material without financial, registration, or excessive advertising barriers.

#### Performance Expectations

MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

The lesson plan and student guide culminate with this very task, planning an investigation about how altering forces will change motion, then using the simulation to run the investigation. To address the part of the Performance Indicator involving the effect of mass on motion, the teacher could write an extension to the plan, and have students use the "Motion" section of the PhET simulation, which is about the effect of mass on motion.

#### Science and Engineering Practices

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this science and engineering practice.

This practice is mentioned by name in the lesson plan. Student tasks begin with finding a relationship between variables (force and distance) and motion. They then use a claim-evidence-reasoning argument model to answer the question “What causes objects to move or stay still?” The final task involves students asking an answerable question, then using the online simulation to run an investigation to collect evidence to answer it.

#### Disciplinary Core Ideas

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Students make predictions, investigate using scaffolded experiments with the given simulations, and are asked to draw conclusions that directly relate to the relationship between the size of forces applied and the resulting change of motion.

#### Crosscutting Concepts

This resource appears to be designed to build towards this crosscutting concept, though the resource developer has not explicitly stated so.