Why Don't Antibiotics Work Like They Used To? [v1.0] Storyline

Contributor
Next Generation Science Storylines
Type Category
Instructional Materials
Types
Unit
Note
This resource, vetted by NSTA curators, is provided to teachers along with suggested modifications to make it more in line with the vision of the NGSS. While not considered to be “fully aligned,” the resources and expert recommendations provide teachers with concrete examples and expert guidance using the EQuIP rubric to adapted existing resources. Read more here.

Reviews

Description

This three-dimensional storyline unit from Next Generation Science Storylines (http://www.nextgenstorylines.org/) consists of three “bends” that engage students in a series of phenomena related to natural selection and evolution.  Each bend is a multi-lesson segment of the storyline that focuses on a different, but related, anchoring phenomenon.  In the first bend, students investigate the anchoring phenomenon of a young girl who is infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  Students then investigate behavioral evolution in a single population of Juncos (Bend 2), before investigating speciation among other Junco populations (Bend 3).  Students finally return to the anchoring phenomenon to explain the origin of new bacterial strains and why the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing.  The unit requires approximately 30 50-minute class periods and does not include formative and summative assessments.   The storyline was reviewed by Achieve, Inc.’s EQuIP Peer Review Panel, and you can can access information about that process and the evaluation of this resource here: https://www.nextgenscience.org/resources/examples-quality-ngss-design.

Intended Audience

Educator and learner
Educational Level
  • High School
Language
English
Access Restrictions

Free access - The right to view and/or download material without financial, registration, or excessive advertising barriers.

Performance Expectations

HS-LS4-5 Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.

Assessment Boundary: none

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
Students begin building toward this performance expectation in lessons 8 and 9 as they transition from focusing on bacteria to investigating the junco population, which has changed as a result of changing environmental conditions. Prompts in the teacher guide and explicit questions in the student activity pages refer to the effects of changing environmental conditions on populations throughout the storyline. Teachers should challenge students to refer to previous evidence as they respond to these questions.

HS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.

Assessment Boundary: none

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
Students begin working toward this performance expectation in lesson 1 as they begin to investigate Addie’s antibiotic-resistant infection, and then they modify this explanation to account for other examples of natural selection throughout the storyline. It will be important for teachers to follow the guidance in the teacher guide and prompt students to think about how they can translate what they learn from one population, like the city juncos, to understand other populations, like antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

HS-LS4-3 Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
Students begin building toward this performance expectation as they analyze data from the simulation in lesson 7. They apply concepts of probability to help them explain phenomena throughout the rest of the storyline. Teachers should make special note of the tips on “Supporting Students in using mathematical thinking” provided in lesson 7. In part, these tips point to the idea that pooling data from multiple trials of the simulation can lead to greater confidence in making claims based on that data.

HS-LS4-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
Students begin working toward this performance expectation in lesson 1 as they begin to investigate Addie’s antibiotic-resistant infection, and they dive deeper into it in lesson 5 when they design an investigation and run a simulation of how antibiotics affect populations of bacteria. Students work toward developing an explanation of how natural selection contributed to Addie’s illness, and then they modify this explanation to account for other examples of natural selection throughout the storyline. Student activity sheets and the teacher guide provide excellent scaffolds for students and teachers, respectively. It is very important that teachers familiarize themselves with the teacher guide. In particular, the suggested prompts listed in red for each lesson provide teachers with possible questions that help students apply the practices and crosscutting concepts and help link current learning to previous lessons.

HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.

Assessment Boundary: none

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.

Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
Students begin building toward this performance expectation in lesson 14 as they prepare to revise the infographic they developed earlier in the storyline. In lesson 14, they begin revising the infographic to incorporate what they have learned about natural selection and evolution. The student activity pages provide organizers that prompt students to select the most relevant sources of evidence and ideas to include in their revised infographics. Teachers can use the infographic jigsaw activity and additional guidance in lesson 15 to support students as they work toward this performance expectation.

Science and Engineering Practices

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this science and engineering practice.

Comments about Including the Science and Engineering Practice
The culminating task for this storyline calls for students to develop an infographic aimed at convincing people to make responsible choices related to antibiotic use. Students first develop their infographics during the first bend of the storyline and then make revisions and improvements to incorporate what they learn in bends 2 and 3. Teachers can take advantage of scaffolds provided in the student activity pages and tips provided in the teacher guide to support students in incorporating scientific evidence and communicating concepts effectively in their infographics.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this science and engineering practice.

Comments about Including the Science and Engineering Practice
Students evaluate evidence from a variety of sources throughout the storyline, and they are asked explicitly to construct written arguments in lessons 11a, 13, 16, and 18. Students also engage in oral argumentation throughout the storyline. Tips for supporting consensus and sense making through oral discussions are provided throughout the teacher guide. Teachers may want to explicitly provide the Claim-Evidence-Reasoning framework to scaffold student arguments. The framework is implicit within storyline tasks, but some students will benefit from the extra scaffolding.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this science and engineering practice.

Comments about Including the Science and Engineering Practice
Students work to develop explanations for multiple phenomena throughout the storyline. By the end of the unit, students should be able to use what they have learned by studying various bird populations to explain why antibiotic resistance is a growing problem and how we might slow its progress. Teachers may want to encourage students to use the organizers provided in the student activity sheets. Teachers may also want to use the suggested prompts in the teacher guide to push students to ground their explanations in the evidence they collect from various sources throughout the storyline.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this science and engineering practice.

Comments about Including the Science and Engineering Practice
Students analyze data throughout the storyline, and they are specifically prompted to determine the best statistical representation to use and to analyze the slope of a graph during lesson 7. Teachers should refer to the tips for “Supporting Students in using mathematical thinking” and the suggested prompts throughout the teacher guide to help focus student attention on using ideas of probability to analyze the multiple sets of data they collect or review during the unit.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students develop this core idea throughout the storyline as they investigate natural selection in bacteria and birds. The summary charts that begin appearing in the student activity pages in lesson 8 provide excellent scaffolds for students to think about the factors that contribute to evolution via natural selection. Teachers can use the suggested prompts and tips provided in the teacher guide to further guide students to think explicitly about these four factors.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
This storyline focuses much more on speciation than extinction, but lesson 22 does introduce a population of juncos on Guadalupe Island that are at risk of local extinction. Teachers will likely want to follow up this storyline with learning experiences that explore extinction more fully. HHMI’s resources supporting the short film, The Day the Mesozoic Died, could fulfill this role (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/day-mesozoic-died).

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students investigate how both bacterial and junco populations respond to changing environments. The timelapse video of bacterial evolution in lesson 23 provides an excellent opportunity for students to see how a changing environment (increasing antibiotic concentrations) can lead to diversification and extinction of bacterial strains.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students begin developing this core idea in lesson 7 during the bacterial simulation, and they continue as they investigate the junco populations. A common student misconception is that adaptation occurs at the organism level, so teachers should probe student thinking and help them shift to the idea that adaptation can only occur at the population level.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students develop this core idea throughout the storyline, culminating as they explain how taking antibiotics can lead to a population that is more resistant to those antibiotics. As suggested by the teaching materials, teachers should prompt student to connect adaptation in the population of city juncos to adaptation in bacterial populations.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students begin developing this core idea during the simulation in lesson 7 and continue to develop it throughout the rest of the storyline. As students move between the anchoring phenomenon, the petri dish experiments, the bacterial simulation, and the juncos case study, teachers should prompt students to look for similarities in the response of these populations to changes within their respective environments.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students develop understanding of this core idea throughout the entire storyline, and explicit references to trait variation begin in lesson 7. Lesson 13 provides a direct illustration of this core idea as students investigate the biochemical mechanism that leads to bolder behavior in city juncos. Teachers should prompt students to consider these criteria as they look at each example of natural selection.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this disciplinary core idea.

Comments about Including the Disciplinary Core Idea
Students begin building toward this core idea in lesson 17 and culminate in lesson 22 as they use DNA evidence to compare different junco populations. The storyline uses the example of a paternity test to build student understanding of using DNA to determine ancestry. The teacher guide lists core ideas from middle school related to inheritance and variation of traits as background knowledge needed for students. However, student understanding would likely be enhanced if they had also worked on these core ideas at the high school level before engaging in this storyline.

Crosscutting Concepts

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this crosscutting concept.

Comments about Including the Crosscutting Concept
This storyline calls for students to use patterns to determine causal relationships and to look for patterns that are generalizable across multiple examples of natural selection. Teachers can use the tips and prompts in the teacher guide to help students identify and make sense of these patterns.

This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this crosscutting concept.

Comments about Including the Crosscutting Concept
Cause and effect plays a central role in the storyline as students work to explain how antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming more common over time. The unit materials focus on mechanisms for causal relationships and on using evidence to support claims of causal relationships. Teachers should use the suggested prompts or other question prompts to focus student thinking on these concepts, as well.

Resource Quality

  • Alignment to the Dimensions of the NGSS: As detailed in the EQuIP Peer Review Panel evaluation (https://www.nextgenscience.org/resources/examples-quality-ngss-design) this storyline provides a thorough, in-depth, and rigorous three-dimensional learning experience in which students use grade-appropriate elements of multiple practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts to make sense of the anchoring phenomenon and secondary phenomena. This unit is accompanied by extensive support materials that include an overview, full storyline, teacher guide, materials list, student activity sheets, and other resources. Teachers can find the performance expectations targeted by each lesson in the far-left “Lesson Question” column in the Full Storyline Document. Teachers will need significant time to familiarize themselves with all these materials in order to take full advantage of the learning opportunities presented in the storyline. In particular, teachers will need to use good science talk facilitation strategies to guide student sense making throughout the storyline. The following site provides a helpful overview of the goals and strategies of science talk: https://www.exploratorium.edu/education/ifi/inquiry-and-eld/educators-guide/science-talk.

  • Instructional Supports: As detailed in the EQuIP Peer Review Panel evaluation (https://www.nextgenscience.org/resources/examples-quality-ngss-design) this storyline and accompanying instructional resources provide a range of effective instructional supports, although it lacks sufficient opportunities for differentiated instruction to meet all students’ needs. Once teachers are comfortable with the storyline, they should consider adapting some lessons within the unit to differentiate for students who are struggling to meet learning targets or who need enrichment beyond the planned activities. Given the length of the instructional materials provided, teachers may want to review those materials in the order presented on the storyline webpage (http://www.nextgenstorylines.org/why-dont-antibiotics-work-like-they-used-to). Teachers should also carefully consider the time required to implement the storyline as intended, especially considering that adding appropriate assessments might require additional time. Teachers should not try to shorten the storyline, though, by skipping segments or fragmenting the activities. Such modifications would compromise the coherence of this resource.

  • Monitoring Student Progress: As detailed in the EQuIP Peer Review Panel evaluation (https://www.nextgenscience.org/resources/examples-quality-ngss-design) embedded student performances provide good evidence of three-dimensional student learning, but teachers will need to supplement more formal assessment opportunites. Teachers should consider planning for more regular opportunities for formative assessments and self-assessments throughout the storyline. Teachers will also need to develop scoring rubrics for student performance tasks and provide a pre-assessment and summative assessment for the storyline.

  • Quality of Technological Interactivity: Although this storyline incorporates some technology-based learning tools (e.g., a NetLogo simulation and Google Earth), this unit is not primarily an interactive, technology-based resource.