# Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

### Students who demonstrate understanding can:

#### Performance Expectations

1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
3. Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary
6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

Clarification Statement and Assessment Boundary

A Peformance Expectation (PE) is what a student should be able to do to show mastery of a concept. Some PEs include a Clarification Statement and/or an Assessment Boundary. These can be found by clicking the PE for "More Info." By hovering over a PE, its corresponding pieces from the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts will be highlighted.

### Science and Engineering Practices

#### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

#### Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

#### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

#### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

#### Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

By clicking on a specific Science and Engineering Practice, Disciplinary Core Idea, or Crosscutting Concept, you can find out more information on it. By hovering over one you can find its corresponding elements in the PEs.

## Planning Curriculum

### Common Core State Standards Connections

#### ELA/Literacy

• RST.11-12.1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-6)
• RST.11-12.7 - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
• WHST.11-12.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-5)
• WHST.11-12.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS2-5)
• WHST.11-12.9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-5)
• WHST.9-12.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS2-6)

#### Mathematics

• HSA-CED.A.1 - Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2)
• HSA-CED.A.2 - Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2)
• HSA-CED.A.4 - Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2)
• HSA-SSE.A.1 - Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-4)
• HSA-SSE.B.3 - Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.â˜… (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-4)
• HSF-IF.C.7 - Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
• HSN-Q.A.1 - Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5), (HS-PS2-6)
• HSN-Q.A.2 - Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5), (HS-PS2-6)
• HSN-Q.A.3 - Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5), (HS-PS2-6)
• HSS-ID.A.1 - Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)
• MP.2 - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4)
• MP.4 - Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1), (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-4)

## Resources & Lesson Plans

• More resources added each week!
A team of teacher curators is working to find, review, and vet online resources that support the standards. Check back often, as NSTA continues to add more targeted resources.
• In this lesson, students understand what polymers are and the role that they play in their everyday life. After gaining the initial understanding of polymers, students create and test a polymer (silly putty) to reinforce understanding of polymers. St ...

• This is a youtube video of the highlights of the Red Bull space jump, it is 1:21 minutes long. To initiate driving questions for a unit on forces, students might ask: Why did Felix have to wear a spacesuit for the jump? How long was Felix falling? Wh ...

• This is a video of the world’s largest vacuum chamber in which a feather and a bowling ball are dropped at the same time to see which one hits the ground first. This phenomena can be used to elicit driving questions for the unit such as: Why do ...

• This simulation includes a wheeled cart on a horizontal surface that is tied to a mass with a string that passes over a pulley. The mass hangs over the edge of the table, and when the cart is released the mass accelerates down towards the ground. The ...

• This resource includes an interactive simulation of a person in an elevator and can simulate riding upward or downward two different distances. There is a free body diagram of the person next to the image of the elevator and as the elevator moves the ...

• This lesson is in the form of a lesson plan with teacher notes and a video that introduces the various parts of the activity including timed breaks for students to complete hands on activity related to the topic. This lesson introduces aerodynamics u ...

• This review focuses on the lab activity identified in a series of lessons that explore the basic characteristics of polymers through the introduction of two polymer categories: thermoplastics and thermosets. In the lab activity, students act as engin ...

• This review focuses on the Sugar Fermentation lab resources contributed by MIT (see Vernier Manuals and Lab Extensions section for links to the lab activities and teacher guide at http://goo.gl/q5HkWn). The Sugar Fermentation Lab utilizes gas pressu ...

• This reference is a series of assessment items that require that the students think through momentum conceptually, analyze graphs related to impulse and momentum, and work through calculations using momentum and impulse. There are energy and momentum ...

• There are several tutorials on the page for this link. This review is under the subheading "Momentum and Energy." It is a small group tutorial that leads students through the construction of an understanding of the concept of momentum and its conserv ...

• In this interactive simulation the learner can manipulate the masses, initial velocities, and elasticity of two colliding balls. The model displays several quantities before, during, and after the collision including velocities, momentum, center of m ...

• The article, from the American Chemical Society’s October 2012 edition of ChemMatters, introduced graphene, an allotrope of carbon. Graphene provides an opportunity for students to examine how the molecular level structure of a material is important ...

• This is a description of a student experiment that teachers can adapt to allow students to prove that electric current produces a magnetic field. The sample includes a specific example of how to do the experiment which can be adapted to an inquiry in ...

• An interactive simulation in which students use a model of charged objects to explain how charges interact and construct an understanding of Coulomb's Law. It is concerned with comparing ions and neutral atoms. The model allows the user to invest ...

• Students are walked through analyzing data representing  the dropping of a heavy ball and a light ball, making predictions before they see the position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs for each of these actions. Follow up questions ask abou ...

• This is a description of an inquiry lab in which students use skate boards, timers, length measuring equipment, and students to investigate the relationship between force and acceleration. In the process of their investigation the students will ident ...

• This is a lab procedure during which the student investigates the strength of a magnetic field within a coil of wire using a magnetic field probe. Students will investigate how the magnetic field strength depends on the current in the wire as well as ...

• Using this online interactive simulation, students can visualize the relationship between mass and separation of the objects on the magnitude of the force of gravity between two objects. The lesson guide includes questions that lead the student throu ...

• Do you have a great resource to share with the community? Click here.
• This is a guide given in Science 8 class on Day 1.

• Science Class Day 2 worksheet

• Reading for Day 3 of Science, or to be used as a homework reading.

• A collection of blog posts from the Library of Congress and Trey Smith, 2015-16 Science Teacher in Residence, about teaching science and engineering with historical primary sources.

• From TeachEngineering - Students make two different formulations of imitation Silly Putty with varying degrees of cross-linking. They witness how changes in the degree of cross-linking influence the putty properties.

• PowerPoint used within the session. Notes on the slides contain all links, videos and activity guides.

• 300+ teacher developed middle school and high school challenge-based learning engineering units - created through University of Cincinnati NSF program

• Students investigate passive solar building design with a focus on heating. Insulation, window placement, thermal mass, surface colors, and site orientation are addressed in the background materials and design preparation. Students test their project...

• In this exercise learners use statistics (T-test using Excel) to analyze an authentic dataset from Lake Mendota in Madison, WI that spans the last 150 years to explore ice on/ice off dates. In addition, students are asked to investigate the IPCC Like...

• This introductory video summarizes the process of generating solar electricity from photovoltaic and concentrating (thermal) solar power technologies.

• This video introduces the concept of daylighting - the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation - and how it is a building strategy that can save operating costs for homeowners and businesses.

• This activity includes an assessment, analysis, and action tool that can be used by classrooms to promote understanding of how the complex current issues of energy, pollution, supply, and consumption are not just global but also local issues.

• This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

• This introductory video describes the basic principles of residential geothermal heat pumps.

• This video provides a simple introduction to wind turbines and how they generate electricity.

• This introductory video covers the basic facts about how to keep residential and commercial roofs cool and why it is important to reducing the heat island effect and conserving energy.

• This video from the U.S. National Academies summarizes the energy challenges the United States faces, including the technological challenges, and the need for changes in consumption and in energy policy.

• This video provides an overview of the research of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on converting biomass to liquid fuels.

• This activity is a learning game in which student teams are each assigned a different energy source. Working cooperatively, students use their reading, brainstorming, and organizational skills to hide the identity of their teamâ€™s energy source whil...

• This Flash animation describes how hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxili...

• This is a series of 10 short videos, hosted by the National Science Foundation, each featuring scientists, research, and green technologies. The overall goal of this series is to encourage people to ask questions and look beyond fossil fuels for inno...

• This is a utility-scale, land-based map of the mean annual wind speed 80 meters above the ground. This map can be used to evaluate the potential for wind energy in the US. State maps and more information are linked from the main map.

• In this video clip from Earth: The Operators' Manual, host Richard Alley discusses China's efforts to develop clean energy technologies and to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere, by building coal plants using CO2 sequestration technology. (scroll down pa...

• This slideshow lays out a photo story with short descriptions of how designers of city buildings all over the world are taking climate change and rising sea level seriously.

• This activity comes at the beginning of a sequence of activities in an energy module. Students observe the transfer of solar energy to different appliances with a solar cell and then they investigate the effect of using different solar sources to s...

• This is a long-term inquiry activity in which students investigate locations they believe harbor cellulose-digesting microbes, collect samples, isolate them on selective media, and screen them for cellulase activity. These novel microbes may be usefu...

• This video reviews key points as well as pros and cons of nuclear power.

• This 15-panel interactive from NOVA Online describes some of the factors (such as Earth's rotation and the sun's uneven heating of Earth's surface) contributing to the formation of the high-speed eastward flows of the jet streams, found near the top ...

• A set of eight photographs compiled into a series of slides explain how urban areas are facing challenges in keeping both their infrastructure and their residents cool as global temperatures rise. Chicago is tackling that problem with a green design ...

•

This interactive addresses the question if we can reduce CO2 emissions by 20% of 1990 levels and help avoid dangerous climate change? Users of this interactive can manipulate changes to various sources and uses (supply and demand) of energy with the ...

• In this hands-on activity, students explore whether rooftop gardens are a viable option for combating the urban heat island effect. The guiding question is: Can rooftop gardens reduce the temperature inside and outside of houses?

• These five short videos are an introduction to the pros and cons of energy issues, including cost, choices, efficiency, environmental impact, and scale. The videos are segments of a feature documentary entitled, Switch: Discover the Future of Energy.

• This visualization shows the molecular interaction of infrared radiation with various gases in the atmosphere. Focus is on the interaction with C02 molecules and resultant warming of the troposphere.

• This animation allows students to explore the infrared spectra of greenhouse gases and depict the absorption spectra. Vibrational modes and Earth's energy spectrum can also be overlaid.

• This interactive visualization provides information in text, graphic, and video format about renewable energy technologies. Resource in the Student's Guide to Global Climate Change, part of EPA Climate Change Division.

• In this activity, students work through the process of evaluating the feasibility of photovoltaic solar power in 4 different US cities.

• From TeachEngineering - Students are introduced to the concept of projectile motion, of which they are often familiar from life experiences, such as playing sports like basketball and baseball, even though they may not understand the physics involved...

• Engineering Infusion with Waves

• Balloon Cart Project

• Newton's Third Law Paper Trampoline

• Bristlebots

• Mousetrap Car Challenge

• Amusement Park Engineer-- Bumper Cars

• Egg Lander--Motion Design CEPA

• Golf Ball Boat

• Bungee Jumping Cord Design

• Pendulums--and the Beat Goes On

• Guitar Designs--Exploring How Music is Made

• Game On!

• Design a Speaker

• LED School Spirit

• Lights Out! Zombie Apocalypse Flashlight

• Powerpoints, videos, handouts on how to conduct a amazing STEM project: launching science experiments over 30km into the atmosphere (three times higher than commercial jets). These projects also incorporate a business component.

Planning Curriculum gives connections to other areas of study for easier curriculum creation.