Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

Primary School (K-2)

  • Science investigations begin with a question.
  • Scientists use different ways to study the world.

Elementary School (3-5)

  • Science methods are determined by questions.
  • Science investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques.

Middle School (6-8)

  • Science investigations use a variety of methods and tools to make measurements and observations.
  • Science investigations are guided by a set of values to ensure accuracy of measurements, observations, and objectivity of findings.
  • Science depends on evaluating proposed explanations.
  • Scientific values function as criteria in distinguishing between science and non-science.

High School (9-12)

  • Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data.
  • New technologies advance scientific knowledge.
  • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.
  • The discourse practices of science are organized around disciplinary domains that share exemplars for making decisions regarding the values, instruments, methods, models, and evidence to adopt and use.
  • Scientific investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques to revise and produce new knowledge.

These understandings about the nature of science are found in the practices section of the foundation box on a standards page.

Other Standards That Use This Connection to the Nature of Science: