This lesson plan on invertebrate biodiversity provides teachers with instructional and laboratory tools to introduce students to ecological fieldwork and data analysis. Five different collection techniques are described; students can build their own collection devices (e.g., pit traps, sticky traps, Berlese funnels, or pollinator pan traps) or use easily available sweep nets. Students learn science and engineering practices such as asking questions, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematics and computational thinking, constructing explanations, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Collection plot sizes can be varied for comparison to different scales as well as comparison of different ecosystems. Teacher instructional information, suggested research questions, and reflection questions are provided, along with identification keys and guides. Links are also provided for sampling techniques and randomization of data collection. For more advanced students, an Excel spreadsheet is provided where students can either compute or use the prepared formulas to calculate the Shannon-Weaver Biodiversity index for their collection sites. Teachers also have access to suggested ways that students can display and communicate their findings with their peers. Peer review is recommended as a way to improve the students' research plans. Teachers may want to start the lesson with a generative question. The generative question may be general or specific to the ecosystem under investigation, but a good generative question should raise interest and a desire to investigate. References for writing generative questions are found in the Instructional Supports comments under Resource Quality.