MS-PS3-5 Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
Clarification Statement: Examples of empirical evidence used in arguments could include an inventory or other representation of the energy before and after the transfer in the form of temperature changes or motion of object.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculations of energy.
This resource appears to be designed to build towards this performance expectation, though the resource developer has not explicitly stated so.
Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
While there is ample opportunity to address this PE fully, students must be pressed to do more than calculate "correct answers"--they should make sense of their mathematical calculations by explaining what they indicate about energy transfer and transfer, etc.There are some questions that ask them to think about the big picture, but very few actually focus on the core concept of energy transfer.
MS-PS3-2 Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative amounts of potential energy, not on calculations of potential energy. Examples of objects within systems interacting at varying distances could include: the Earth and either a roller coaster cart at varying positions on a hill or objects at varying heights on shelves, changing the direction/orientation of a magnet, and a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate’s hair. Examples of models could include representations, diagrams, pictures, and written descriptions of systems.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to two objects and electric, magnetic, and gravitational interactions.
This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.
Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
While the performance expectation is explicit in the design of these lessons, the lessons progress to mathematical modeling pretty quickly. Students may need more time than is allotted to master the algebraic representations of energy transfer, energy storage, work, power, friction, etc. that included in each day's lessons. Students should be able to support their claims with more than just correct calculations, especially in the pendulum activity and in the kinetic and potential energy activity, but generally in all the activities requiring mathematical computations.