MS-PS2-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.
This resource is explicitly designed to build towards this performance expectation.
Comments about Including the Performance Expectation
The lesson plan gives options for students to create their own demonstrations for each one of Newton’s Laws of Motion or use suggested demonstrations. To meet the PE, students will need to design their own demonstrations, and alter variables within the demonstration framework (to ensure that the demonstration becomes an investigation, not simply a one-time happening). The demonstrations given in the lesson plan could perhaps function as teacher-led examples, or as jumping-off points for students requiring more direct support.
Since the PE involves all three of Newton’s Laws directly or indirectly, a teacher might encourage students to develop just one demonstration, and explain how that one demonstration is related to all three Laws, in order to underscore how the change in motion relies on a force, and that particular force relies on the masses and acceleration involved.
There is also some overlap between this PE and MS-PS-2-1 (Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects). A teacher could require that the demonstration about change in motion also involve some sort of collision. While that alone would not directly address “designing a solution to a collision problem”, it would give students practice with colliding objects, on their way to eventually meeting that standard.