This assessment is one of the first that was published by Achieve, the organization that coordinated the writing of the Next Generation Science Standards. It includes a standards bundle (integration) of nine CCSS-Math standards, three performance assessments from the NGSS and ten standards from the CCSS-ELA/Literacy. In task A students use math concepts related to percent, frequency and proportions within the instructional unit on natural selection to state the probability that predicts the frequency of traits in a bacterial population. They calculate the actual frequency of the traits in the assessment and then compare the probabilities from their prediction to the observed frequencies. Task B has students create a scatterplot to show the change in frequency of two traits over many generations and then construct an explanation for how natural selection acts to change the genetic frequency over multiple generations with different antibiotics. Students use this to make a prediction about what would happen to the frequencies of traits in a population if the environment was changed. As a part of Task C students examine data charts and graphs to determine which traits from Part A are represented by one of the unknown traits in the new data. They then make a claim about which bacteria are protected by antibiotic resistance. In Part D, students conduct a short research project and construct a list of criteria and constraints to be taken into account when people are trying to prevent antibiotic resistance in hospitals and nursing homes.